Friday, April 30, 2004

Carnatic Wars

Also spelled �Karnatic Wars� series of military contests during the 18th century between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore for control of the coastal strip of eastern India from Nellore (north of Madras) southward (the Tamil country). The name Carnatic properly refers to the region occupied by the Kannada-speaking people, which roughly corresponds to the modern Indian state of Karnataka

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Chandler, Seth Carlo

Chandler initially worked for the U.S. Coast Survey (1864 - 70). He then worked as an actuary until he joined the Harvard University Observatory in 1881. From 1896 to 1909 he edited

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

San Francisco De Macor�

City, north-central Dominican Republic, on a tributary of the Cam� River. Founded in 1777, it is situated in the fertile La Vega Real region. The city is a commercial and processing centre for the cacao, coffee, fruits, rice, beeswax, and hides produced in the hinterland. It is served by a short local railroad and by several secondary highways. Pop. (1983 est.) 67,000.

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Marquette University

Private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Milwaukee, Wis., U.S. It is affiliated with the Jesuit order of the Roman Catholic church. It offers degree programs at the bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional levels. Marquette comprises 12 schools, colleges, and programs, including a school of law and a physical therapy program. The School of Dentistry

Monday, April 26, 2004

Mindszenty, J�zsef

Politically active from the time of his ordination as a priest in 1915, Mindszenty was arrested as an enemy of totalitarian

Sunday, April 25, 2004


The first begins in the mouth. There, food is mixed with saliva for lubrication and placed on the back of the tongue. The mouth closes, and the soft portion of the roof of the mouth (soft palate) rises so that the passageway between

Saturday, April 24, 2004


Any large wind system occurring in regions outside the equatorial belt and rotating about a centre of high atmospheric pressure clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern. Its flow is the reverse of that of a cyclone (q.v.).

Friday, April 23, 2004

Central African Republic, Settlement patterns

About three-fifths of the population is rural, residing primarily in the southern and western parts of the country. The eastern and northeastern sections of the country are less populated. Of the urban population, a significant proportion lives in Bangui. Other major towns are Berb�rati, Bossangoa, and Bouar in the west, Bambari and Bria in the central plains, and Bangassou

Thursday, April 22, 2004


Kazak �Atyrau�, also spelled �Aterau�, formerly (until 1992) �Guryev�, also spelled �Gurev, �Guriev�, or �Gurjev� city, western Kazakstan. It is a port on the Ural (Zhayyq) River near its mouth on the Caspian Sea. Founded as a fishing settlement in the mid-17th century by the fishing entrepreneur Mikhail Guryev, it soon became a fort on the Ural fortified line manned by the Ural Cossacks. Fishing and trade were the main economic activities until Soviet times. Now, in addition to a large

Wednesday, April 21, 2004


The first international cooperative Earth satellite, launched April 26, 1962, as a joint project of agencies of the United States and the United Kingdom. Design, construction, telemetry, and launching of the 14.5-kilogram (32-lb) satellite was handled in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The United Kingdom was responsible for designing the

Tuesday, April 20, 2004


Alchemy was the name given in Latin Europe in the 12th century to an aspect of thought that corresponds to astrology, which is apparently an older tradition. Both represent attempts

Monday, April 19, 2004

Puerto Rico, Flag Of

In the late 19th century, as pro-independence sentiment grew in the Caribbean islands under Spanish dominion, many activists in Cuba and Puerto Rico were exiled to the United States or elsewhere. In New York City a flag was chosen in exile by the Puerto Rican section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party on December 22, 1895. The design was simply the Cuban flag with a reversal of the

Sunday, April 18, 2004

Gaddi, Agnolo

In 1369 he was employed in Rome as an assistant to his brother Giovanni, a minor painter, in the execution of frescoes for

Saturday, April 17, 2004

Axis Powers

The coalition headed by Germany, Italy, and Japan that opposed the Allied Powers in World War II. The alliance originated in a series of agreements between Germany and Italy, followed by the proclamation of an �axis� binding Rome and Berlin (Oct. 25, 1936) and then by the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact against the Soviet Union (Nov. 25, 1936). The connection was strengthened by a full

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Scandinavian Literature, Prose

Iceland's adoption of Christianity in 1000 opened the way for powerful influences from western Europe. Missionaries taught Icelanders the Latin alphabet, and they soon began to study in the great schools of Europe. One of the first was �sleifr, who after being educated and ordained as a priest was consecrated bishop. His school at Sk�lholt in southern Iceland was for

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

China, The end of the radical period

Thus in 1968 the society began to return to business, though not as usual. China's regular schools began to reopen, although the number of students in higher institutions represented only a small percentage of those three years before. In July yet another of Mao's �latest instructions� approved science and engineering education and called for the �return to

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

Scheffel, Joseph Victor Von

Scheffel's father was a Baden army engineer, and

Monday, April 12, 2004

Arnold Of Brescia

George William Greenaway, Arnold of Brescia (1931, reprinted 1978).

Sunday, April 11, 2004


A type of acrostic in which the first letter of each line of a poem or the first letter of the first word of each stanza taken in order forms the alphabet. Examples of these are some of the Psalms (in Hebrew), such as Psalms 25 and 34, where successive verses begin with the letters of the Hebrew alphabet in order. The word is from the late Latin for �alphabetical� and is derived from

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Rous, Peyton

Rous was educated at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and at the University of Michigan. He joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University)

Friday, April 09, 2004

Qabbani, Nizar

Syrian poet and diplomat (b. March 21, 1923, Damascus, Syria--d. April 30, 1998, London, Eng.), was one of the most widely read Arab poets of the 20th century. Written in simple but eloquent language, his verses, some of which were set to music, won him the hearts of countless Arabic speakers throughout the Middle East and Africa. Qabbani, who was born into a middle-class merchant family, was also the

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Croly, Jane Cunningham

Jane Cunningham moved to the

Wednesday, April 07, 2004

Ahram, Al-

It was founded in 1875 by two Lebanese-Christian brothers, Salim and Bishara Takla. As a daily from 1881, the paper became famous for its independence and objectivity, despite British censorship and control, and for its coverage of international

Tuesday, April 06, 2004

Houdon, Jean-antoine

Houdon began sculpturing at the age of nine and underwent the

Sunday, April 04, 2004

War Finance

Government efforts to finance major wars have frequently led to major changes in the tax system. In the United States, for example, the importance

Saturday, April 03, 2004


In mineralogy, appearance of a surface broken in directions other than along cleavage planes. There are several kinds of fractures: conchoidal (curved concavities resembling shells - e.g., flint, quartz, glass); even (rough, approximately plane surfaces); uneven (rough and completely irregular surfaces, the commonest fracture type); hackly (sharp edges and jagged points

Friday, April 02, 2004

Gen�e, Dame Adeline

At eight she was adopted by her aunt and uncle, the dancers who trained her for the ballet. Her early appearances were in Germany. From 1897 until 1907 she was prima ballerina at the Empire Theatre in London.

Thursday, April 01, 2004


Also called �The Book Of Tobias,� apocryphal work (noncanonical for Jews and Protestants) that found its way into the Roman Catholic canon via the Septuagint. A religious folktale and a Judaicized version of the story of the grateful dead, it relates how Tobit, a pious Jew exiled to Nineveh in Assyria, observed the precepts of Hebrew Law by giving alms and by burying the dead. In spite of his good works,