Tuesday, August 31, 2004

Wind Instrument, Trumpet-type aerophones

As regards sound generation, trumpets and horns differ from other aerophones in their use of the so-called �lip reed,� which is formed when the player's partially closed lips vibrate as they press against the rim of a mouthpiece or mouth hole (although the behaviour of the lips, strictly speaking, is not exactly comparable to the operation of a reed). When the lips vibrate,

Monday, August 30, 2004

Stagg, Amos Alonzo

U.S. college football coach who had the longest coaching career - 71 years - in the history of the sport. In 1943, at the age of 81, he was named college coach of the year, and he remained active in coaching until the age of 98. He is the only person selected for the National Football Hall of Fame, New Brunswick, N.J., as both a player and a coach. He was also

Sunday, August 29, 2004

Malacca, Sultanate Of

(1403? - 1511), Malay dynasty that ruled the great entrep�t of Malacca (Melaka) and its dependencies and provided Malay history with its golden age, still evoked in idiom and institutions. The founder and first ruler of Malacca, Paramesvara (d. 1424, Malacca), a Sumatran prince who had fled his native Palembang under Javanese attack, established himself briefly in Tumasik (now Singapore)

Saturday, August 28, 2004

Earth Sciences, Earth history according to Werner and James Hutton

The two major theories of the 18th century were the Neptunian and the Plutonian. The Neptunists, led by Werner and his students, maintained that the Earth was originally covered by a turbid ocean. The first sediments deposited over the irregular floor of this universal ocean formed the granite and other crystalline rocks. Then as the ocean began to subside, �Stratified

Friday, August 27, 2004

Shansi, Transportation

Shansi relies heavily on rail lines, both for intraprovince transport and for shipping raw materials, industrial commodities, and foodstuffs outside the province. The longest of these, the T'ung-p'u trunk line, runs from Ta-t'ung to Feng-ling-tu, in the southwest corner of the province. Additional branch lines connect the main line with newly opened industrial and mining

Thursday, August 26, 2004

United Kingdom, Flag Of The

The earliest form of the flag of Great Britain, developed in 1606 and used during the reigns of James I (1603 - 25) and Charles I (1625 - 49), displayed the red cross of England superimposed on the white cross of Scotland, with the blue field of the latter. Because in heraldry a red on blue is not considered permissible, the red cross had to be bordered with white, its own correct field. During the Commonwealth

Wednesday, August 25, 2004


Genus of parasitic protozoans of the spore-producing phylum Apicomplexa (previously Sporozoa). Eimeria, which causes coccidiosis in livestock and wild animals, infects mainly the cells of the digestive tract, although it also attacks cells of the liver and the bile duct. Symptoms of infection are diarrhea, weight loss, and general weakness. Eimeria is characterized

Tuesday, August 24, 2004

Lima Barreto, Afonso Henriques De

Lima Barreto was an active journalist throughout his adult life. His often vitriolic social analysis and criticism are more direct and less

Monday, August 23, 2004

Andean Peoples

Since 1532, under European rule, extractive activities, such as silver, tin, and copper mining, for foreign markets have been favoured to the point to which Andean agriculture and the ecologic wisdom in handling productively the extremely high altitudes have been gradually devalued and mostly forgotten. The population of the Central Andes is both less dense and less

Sunday, August 22, 2004

Photography, Portraiture

A new style of portrait, introduced in Paris by Andr�-Adolphe-Eug�ne Disd�ri in 1854, was universally popular from 1859 onward. It came to be called the carte de visite because the size of the mounted photograph (four by 2 1/2 inches) corresponded to that of a calling card. Disd�ri used a four-lens camera to produce eight negatives on a single glass plate. Each picture could be separately

Saturday, August 21, 2004


City, eastern Turkey. It lies on the eastern shore of Lake Van at an altitude of about 5,750 feet (1,750 m). The city lies in an oasis at the foot of a hill crowned by an ancient ruined citadel. A ruined stone building near the foot of the rocky spur bears cuneiform inscriptions dating from the 8th and 7th centuries BC, when Van was the chief centre of the Urartu Kingdom. After the fall of Nineveh

Friday, August 20, 2004


(Japanese: Kitami Range), mountain range, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan, extending 180 mi (290 km) along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The range is basically an upwarped block except in the west, where it drops abruptly to the Teshio-gawa (Teshio River) valley. Elevations are generally between 2,500 and 3,100 ft (750 and 950 m). In the south central part of the range, however, the Wenshiri horst (block of

Thursday, August 19, 2004


(Bos gaurus), one of several species of wild cattle, family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla). The gaur lives in small herds in the mountain forests of India, Southeast Asia, and the Malay Peninsula. Larger than any other wild cattle, it attains a shoulder height of 1.8 m (6 feet) or more. It is heavy-bodied and typically blue-eyed and has curving horns, a high ridge on the forepart

Wednesday, August 18, 2004

Radical Empiricism

A theory of knowledge and a metaphysics (theory of Being) advanced by William James, an American pragmatist philosopher and psychologist, based on the pragmatic theory of truth and the principle of pure experience, which contends that the relations between things are at least as real as the things themselves, that their function is real, and that no hidden substrata

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

Animal Development, Amphioxus, echinoderms, and amphibians

Gastrulation does not always proceed exactly as described above. In the course of evolution, certain animal groups have modified this critical stage of embryonic development, and these modifications have undoubtedly contributed to the successful continuation of species. In the primitive fishlike chordate amphioxus, for example, the invaginating blastoderm

Monday, August 16, 2004


Known as Syut in ancient Egypt, the city was a centre of worship of the jackal-headed god Wepwawet. In the Middle Kingdom (1938 - c. 1600? BC), it was capital

Sunday, August 15, 2004


Also spelled �Sabrata, � western-most of the three cities of ancient Tripolis, located near the modern town of Sabratah, west of Tripoli, in Libya. Founded by the Carthaginians as a trading post, it was first permanently settled in the 4th century BC. Sabratha had a modest natural harbour, later improved by the Romans, and together with Oea (Tripoli) it served as an outlet for the trans-Saharan caravan

Saturday, August 14, 2004

Multinational And Regional Organizations

Nontraditional threats to security and terrorism dominated the agendas of many multinational and regional organizations in 2002. At a special ministerial meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in May, members focused on enhancing law enforcement and other cooperation. In August they pledged to work with the United States in combating terrorism.

Friday, August 13, 2004


City, seat (1833) of Lumpkin county, northern Georgia, U.S. Gold was discovered in the locality in 1828, and the site was settled and incorporated in 1833 after one of the nation's first gold rushes; its name derives from the Cherokee taulonica (�yellow metal�). A U.S. mint operated there from 1838 until 1861, when Georgia seceded from the Union; Dahlonega-minted gold coins are now highly prized by

Thursday, August 12, 2004


City, seat of Buncombe county, west-central North Carolina, U.S. Asheville lies in the Blue Ridge Mountains, at the junction of the French Broad and Swannanoa rivers. It has a mild climate and is built on an uneven plateau at an elevation of about 2,200 feet (670 metres). Asheville is the eastern gateway to Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Indian Reservation and

Wednesday, August 11, 2004

Tequendama Falls

Spanish �Salto De Tequendama, � waterfalls on the Bogot� (Funza) River, which is a tributary of the Magdalena River, in the Andean Cordillera (mountains) Oriental, central Colombia. One of the country's major tourist attractions, the falls are located in a forested area 20 miles (32 km) west of Bogot�. The river surges through a rocky gorge that narrows to about 60 feet (18 m) at the brink of the 515-foot- (157-metre-) high falls. The

Tuesday, August 10, 2004


Ornate, often theatrical, usually movable funereal structure mounted on a stage to support a coffin for a lying-in-state. It is used for royalty and personages of distinction and is normally set up in a historic public hall, such as Westminster Hall, London, and the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. The reputation of the Spanish architect Jos� Churriguera, known for

Monday, August 09, 2004

Luxembourg, Fran�ois-henri De Montmorency-bouteville, Duc De

The posthumous son of Fran�ois de Montmorency-Bouteville, he was reared by a distant relative, Charlotte de Montmorency, princesse de Cond�. Although Bouteville was hunchbacked and physically weak, the princesse's son Louis II de Bourbon,

Sunday, August 08, 2004


The caste appears to date from the 9th and 10th centuries, the great period of temple building in South India. The women attended the god - fanned the icon, honoured it with lights, and sang and

Saturday, August 07, 2004

Interior Design, Japan

Interior decoration in Japan was much influenced by Chinese ideas, especially between the 8th and 12th centuries, but it developed along lighter, more austere and elegant lines. It has altered little since medieval days. The most important differences in modern design are that the matting has been extended to cover the whole of the wooden floor, and sliding doors have

Friday, August 06, 2004

North Germanic Languages, Common and distinctly Scandinavian characteristics

North Germanic differs from East Germanic (but not West Germanic) in that

Thursday, August 05, 2004

Palestine, History Of, The Crusades

A year after the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders, the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was established (Christmas Day, 1100). Thereafter, there was no effective check to the expansion of the crusaders' power until the capture of their stronghold at Edessa (modern Urfa, Tur.) by the atabeg of Mosul, 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, in 1144. Zangi's anticrusader campaign was carried on after

Wednesday, August 04, 2004


(Latin oraculum from orare, �to pray,� or �to speak�), divine communication delivered in response to a petitioner's request; also, the seat of prophecy itself. Oracles were a branch of divination but differed from the casual pronouncements of augurs by being associated with a definite person or place. For example, the oracles of Zeus originated at Dodona, Olympia, or Siwa; those

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Ashikaga Yoshimitsu

Proclaimed shogun

Monday, August 02, 2004


Style of music played on rudimentary instruments, first popularized in the United States in the 1920s but revived by British musicians in the mid-1950s. The term was originally applied to music played by jug bands (in addition to jugs, these bands featured guitars, banjos, harmonicas, and kazoos), first in Louisville, Kentucky, as early as 1905 and then more prominently in Memphis, Tennessee,

Sunday, August 01, 2004

Hisdai Ibn Shaprut

After becoming court physician to the powerful Umayyad caliph 'Abd ar-Rahman III, Hisdai gradually gained eminence in the Arab world, acting as