Tuesday, June 21, 2005

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Supreme Court fight

Declaring in his Second Inaugural Address (see original text) that “I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished,” Roosevelt was determined to push forward with further New Deal reforms. With large Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress, there remained only one obstacle to his objectives: the Supreme Court. During Roosevelt's first term, the court, which consisted entirely of pre-Roosevelt appointees, had invalidated several key New Deal measures, and cases challenging the Social Security Act and the Wagner Act were pending. To make the court more supportive of reform legislation, Roosevelt proposed a reorganization plan that would have allowed him to appoint one new justice for every sitting justice aged 70 years or older. Widely viewed as a court-packing scheme (even by Roosevelt's supporters), the reorganization bill provoked heated debate in Congress and eventually was voted down, which handed Roosevelt his first major legislative defeat. Meanwhile, the fight over court packing seemed to alter the Supreme Court's attitude toward the New Deal, and both the Social Security Act and the Wagner Act were upheld.

Thursday, June 16, 2005


The city served as a royal residence during the reign of King John II (1481–95). With the exception of the Igreja (church) de Jesus (begun 1490) and the 17th-century Castelo de São Filipe, the

Monday, June 13, 2005

France, History Of, Gaul and Germany at the end of the 5th century

Preceding the arrival of the Franks, other Germans had already entered Gaul. The area south of the Loire was divided between two groups. One, the Visigoths, occupied Aquitaine, Provence, and most of Spain. Their king, Euric (ruled 466–484), was the most powerful monarch in the West. The other group, the Burgundians, ruled much of the Rhône valley. In northern Gaul the Alemanni occupied

Thursday, June 02, 2005

Cheju Island

Also called  Quelpart Island , Korean  Cheju-do  island and (since 1946) do (province) of South Korea. It is in the East China Sea, 60 miles (100 km) southwest of Cholla-nam province, of which it formerly was a part. With an area of 705 square miles (1,825 square km), including 26 small associated islands, it is the smallest province of the republic. Oval in shape, Cheju Island measures 40 miles (64 km) from east to west and 16 miles (26 km) from north to south. The island